Rosa Parks (née McCauley) born Tuskegee, AL February 4, 1913 (d. 2005). Described by the US Congress as, "the mother of the freedom movement." Initiated Montgomery Bus Boycott by refusal to surrender seat to a white passenger, 1955.
"I have learned over the years that when one's mind is made up, this diminishes fear." (1955 photo, Wikipedia)